Enhancing Satellite Imagery through Deep Learning

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Enhancing Satellite Imagery through Deep Learning

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value<p>In this article, we go through exploring different ways to enhancing satellite imagery to get the best quality images using Deep Learning. We joined one of Omdena <a href="https://omdena.com/projects/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">AI Challenges</a> in collaboration with the  <a class="bv iv" href="https://www1.wfp.org/" rel="noopener nofollow">World Food Program</a>. <strong class="ia jx">The challenge goal is to fight hunger</strong> by locating, tracking, and improving the growth of crops of staple foods such as rice and wheat in Nepal. It is conceivable that satellite images of a certain quality are required.</p>
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In this article, we go through exploring different ways to enhancing satellite imagery to get the best quality images using Deep Learning. We joined one of Omdena AI Challenges in collaboration with the  World Food ProgramThe challenge goal is to fight hunger by locating, tracking, and improving the growth of crops of staple foods such as rice and wheat in Nepal. It is conceivable that satellite images of a certain quality are required.

Execution time: 0.0013 seconds

Execution time: 0.0003 seconds

Authors: James Tan, and Saqib Shamsi

I am not an expert in satellite imagery, in fact, it’s quite the contrary actually!

Recently, I was accepted into a program hosted by Omdena, a collaborative global platform that pairs AI learning with solving social problems. I joined one of their AI Challenges in collaboration with the United Nations World Food ProgramThe challenge goal is to fight hunger by locating, tracking, and improving the growth of crops of staple foods such as rice and wheat in Nepal.

But what truly makes this collaboration a special and remarkable one is that people from all parts of the world with varying levels of technical expertise are chosen to participate in it.

In order to accurately locate crop fields from satellite imagery, it is conceivable that images of a certain quality are required. Although Deep Learning is notoriously known for being able to pull off miracles, we human beings will have a real field day labeling the data if we cannot clearly make out the details within an image.

The following is an example of what we would like to achieve.

Enhancing satellite imagery - Source: Omdena

Semantic Segmentation Example https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/feart.2017.00017/full

If we can clearly identify areas within a satellite image that correspond to a particular crop, we can easily extend our work to evaluate the area of cultivation of each crop, which will go a long way in ensuring food security.

To get our hands on the required data, we explored a myriad of sources of satellite imagery. We ultimately settled on using images from Sentinel-2, largely due to the fact that the satellite mission boasts images of the best quality amongst other open-source images.

Original Image

Despite my previous assertion that I am not an expert in satellite imagery, I believe that having seen the above image we can all agree that the quality of it is not quite up to scratch.

A real nightmare to label!

It is completely unfeasible to discern the demarcations between individual crop fields.

Of course, this isn’t completely unreasonable for open-source data. Satellite image vendors have to be especially careful when it comes to the distribution of such data due to privacy concerns.

How outrageous it would be if simply anyone can look up what our backyards look like on the Internet, right?

However, this inconvenience comes at a great detriment to our project. In order to clearly identify and label crops in an image that are relevant to us, we would require images of much higher quality than what we have.

Enhancing satellite imagery - Source: Omdena

Photo by Thomas Stephan on Unsplash

Deep Learning practitioners love to apply what they know to solve the problems they face. You probably know where I am getting with this. If the quality of an image isn’t good enough, we try to enhance it of course! The process we like to call super-resolution.

Deep Image Prior¹

This is one of the first things that we tried, and here are the results.

Enhancing satellite imagery - Source: Omdena

Results of applying Deep Image Prior to the original image.

Quite noticeably there has been some improvement, the model has done an amazing job of smoothening out the rough edges in the photo. The pixelation problem has been pretty much-taken care of and everything blends in well.

However, in doing so the model has neglected finer details and that leads to an image that feels out of focus. Next try!

Decrappify²

Naturally, we wouldn’t stop until we got something completely satisfactory, which led us to try this instead.

 

Results of applying Decrappify to the original image - Source: Omdena

Results of applying Decrappify to the original image

What happened?

Now, it is quite obvious that this model has done something completely different than Deep Image Prior. Instead of attempting to ensure that the pixels blend in with each other, this model instead places great emphasis on refining each individual pixel. In doing so it neglects to consider how each pixel is actually related to its surrounding pixels.

Albeit being successful in injecting some life into the original image by making the colors more refined and attractive, the pixelation in the image remains an issue.

Just as we were about to throw in the towel for the night, I came up with an idea that seemed incredibly silly at that time. But before I tell you what I did, let’s take a look at the results!

Results of running the original image through Deep Image Prior and then Decrappify - Source: Omdena

Results of running the original image through Deep Image Prior and then Decrappify – Source: Omdena

When I first saw this, I couldn’t believe what I was seeing. We have come such a long way from our original image! And to think that the approach taken to achieve such results was such a silly one.

Since each of the previous two models was no good individually, but they clearly were good at getting different things done, what if we combined the two of them?

So we ran the original image through Deep Image Prior, and subsequently fed the results of that through the Decrappify model, and voila!

Relative to the original image, the colors of the current image look incredibly realistic. The lucid demarcations of the crop fields will certainly come a long way in helping us label our data.

The way we pulled this off was embarrassingly simple. We used Deep Image Prior which is found at its official Github repository. As for Decrappify, given our objectives, we figured that training it on satellite images would definitely help out. Having the two models readily set up, it’s just a matter of feeding images into them one after the other.

For those of you that have made it this far and are curious about what the models actually are, here’s a brief overview of them.

Deep Image Prior

This method hardly conforms to conventional deep learning-based super-resolution approaches.

Typically, we would create a dataset of low and high-resolution image pairs, following which we train a model to map a low-resolution image to its high-resolution counterpart. However, this particular model does none of the above, and as a result, does not have to be pre-trained prior to inference time. Instead, a randomly initialized deep neural network is trained on one particular image. That image could be of one of your favorite sports star, a picture of your pet, a painting that you like, or even random noise. Its task is then, to optimize its parameters to map the input image to the image that we are trying to super-resolve. In other words, we are training our network to overfit our low-resolution image.

Why does this make sense?

It turns out that the structure of deep networks imposes a ‘naturalness prior’ over the generated image. Quite simply, this means that when overfitting/memorizing an image, deep networks prefer to learn the natural/smoother concepts first before moving on to the unnatural ones. That is to say that the convolutional neural network (CNN) will first ‘identify’ the colors that form shapes in various parts of the image and then proceed to materialize various textures in the image. As the optimization process goes on, the CNN will latch on to finer details.

When generating an image, neural networks prefer natural-looking images as opposed to pixelated ones. Thus, we start the optimization process and allow it to continue to the point where it has captured most of the relevant details but has not learned any of the pixelations and noise. For super-resolution, we train it to a point such that the resulting image it creates closely resembles the original image when they are both downsampled. There exist multiple high-resolution images that could have produced each low-resolution image.

And as it turns out, the most plausible image is also the one that doesn’t appear to be highly pixelated, this is because the structure of deep networks imposes a ‘naturalness prior’ on generated images.

We highly recommend this talk by Dmitry Ulyanov (who was the main author of the Deep Image Prior paper) to understand the above concepts in depth.

Enhancing satellite imagery - Source: Omdena

The super-resolution process of Deep Image Prior

Enhancing satellite imagery - Source: Omdena

The super-resolution process of Deep Image Prior

Decrappify

In contrast with the previous model, here it is about learning as much possible about satellite images. As a result, when we give it a low-quality image as an input, the model is able to bridge the gap between a low and high-quality version of it by using its knowledge of the world to fill in the blanks.

The model has a U-net architecture with a pre-trained ResNet backbone. But the part that is really interesting is in the loss function, which has been adapted from this paper. The objective of this model is to produce an output image of higher quality, such that when it is fed through a pre-trained VGG16 model, it produces minimal ‘style’ and ‘content’ loss relative to the ground truth image. The ‘style’ loss is relevant because we want the model to be able to be careful in creating a high-resolution image with a texture that is realistic of a satellite image. The ‘content’ loss is responsible for encouraging the model to recreate intricate details in its higher quality output.

If I have managed to pique your curiosity, do check out the original articles/papers (see below) for more details.

It was a real thrill ride, and I am really glad that we managed to get reasonably good results! Aside from that, I’m really elated to be able to apply the stuff I have learned to problems that really matter in the world. Of course, none of this would have been possible without the help of my incredibly supportive team.

Lastly, the next time I think of a silly idea I will never be too quick to discount it. Although our gut instincts will occasionally give us crazy ideas, we will never know how it ends if we do not give it a chance.

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background_positioncenter
background_horizontal_offset0
background_vertical_offset0
background_repeatno-repeat
background_blendnormal
background_enable_video_mp4on
background_enable_video_webmon
allow_player_pauseoff
background_video_pause_outside_viewporton
background_enable_pattern_styleoff
background_pattern_stylepolka-dots
background_pattern_colorrgba(0,0,0,0.2)
background_pattern_sizeinitial
background_pattern_widthauto
background_pattern_heightauto
background_pattern_repeat_origintop_left
background_pattern_horizontal_offset0
background_pattern_vertical_offset0
background_pattern_repeatrepeat
background_pattern_blend_modenormal
background_enable_mask_styleoff
background_mask_stylelayer-blob
background_mask_color#ffffff
background_mask_aspect_ratiolandscape
background_mask_sizestretch
background_mask_widthauto
background_mask_heightauto
background_mask_positioncenter
background_mask_horizontal_offset0
background_mask_vertical_offset0
background_mask_blend_modenormal
custom_buttonoff
button_text_size20
button_bg_use_color_gradientoff
button_bg_color_gradient_repeatoff
button_bg_color_gradient_typelinear
button_bg_color_gradient_direction180deg
button_bg_color_gradient_direction_radialcenter
button_bg_color_gradient_stops#2b87da 0%|#29c4a9 100%
button_bg_color_gradient_unit%
button_bg_color_gradient_overlays_imageoff
button_bg_color_gradient_start#2b87da
button_bg_color_gradient_start_position0%
button_bg_color_gradient_end#29c4a9
button_bg_color_gradient_end_position100%
button_bg_enable_imageon
button_bg_parallaxoff
button_bg_parallax_methodon
button_bg_sizecover
button_bg_image_widthauto
button_bg_image_heightauto
button_bg_positioncenter
button_bg_horizontal_offset0
button_bg_vertical_offset0
button_bg_repeatno-repeat
button_bg_blendnormal
button_bg_enable_video_mp4on
button_bg_enable_video_webmon
button_bg_allow_player_pauseoff
button_bg_video_pause_outside_viewporton
button_use_iconon
button_icon_placementright
button_on_hoveron
positioningnone
position_origin_atop_left
position_origin_ftop_left
position_origin_rtop_left
width100%
max_widthnone
max_width_tablet25%
max_width_phone25%
max_width_last_editedon|tablet
module_alignmentcenter
min_heightauto
heightauto
max_heightnone
custom_margin_tablet||0px||false|false
custom_margin_phone||0px||false|false
custom_margin_last_editedon|phone
filter_hue_rotate0deg
filter_saturate100%
filter_brightness100%
filter_contrast100%
filter_invert0%
filter_sepia0%
filter_opacity100%
filter_blur0px
mix_blend_modenormal
animation_stylenone
animation_directioncenter
animation_duration1000ms
animation_delay0ms
animation_intensity_slide50%
animation_intensity_zoom50%
animation_intensity_flip50%
animation_intensity_fold50%
animation_intensity_roll50%
animation_starting_opacity0%
animation_speed_curveease-in-out
animation_repeatonce
hover_transition_duration300ms
hover_transition_delay0ms
hover_transition_speed_curveease
link_option_url_new_windowoff
sticky_positionnone
sticky_offset_top0px
sticky_offset_bottom0px
sticky_limit_topnone
sticky_limit_bottomnone
sticky_offset_surroundingon
sticky_transitionon
motion_trigger_startmiddle
hover_enabled0
title_css_text_shadow_stylenone
title_css_text_shadow_horizontal_length0em
title_css_text_shadow_vertical_length0em
title_css_text_shadow_blur_strength0em
title_css_text_shadow_colorrgba(0,0,0,0.4)
acf_label_css_text_shadow_stylenone
acf_label_css_text_shadow_horizontal_length0em
acf_label_css_text_shadow_vertical_length0em
acf_label_css_text_shadow_blur_strength0em
acf_label_css_text_shadow_colorrgba(0,0,0,0.4)
label_css_text_shadow_stylenone
label_css_text_shadow_horizontal_length0em
label_css_text_shadow_vertical_length0em
label_css_text_shadow_blur_strength0em
label_css_text_shadow_colorrgba(0,0,0,0.4)
text_before_css_text_shadow_stylenone
text_before_css_text_shadow_horizontal_length0em
text_before_css_text_shadow_vertical_length0em
text_before_css_text_shadow_blur_strength0em
text_before_css_text_shadow_colorrgba(0,0,0,0.4)
seperator_text_shadow_stylenone
seperator_text_shadow_horizontal_length0em
seperator_text_shadow_vertical_length0em
seperator_text_shadow_blur_strength0em
seperator_text_shadow_colorrgba(0,0,0,0.4)
relational_field_item_text_shadow_stylenone
relational_field_item_text_shadow_horizontal_length0em
relational_field_item_text_shadow_vertical_length0em
relational_field_item_text_shadow_blur_strength0em
relational_field_item_text_shadow_colorrgba(0,0,0,0.4)
border_radiion|100%|100%|100%|100%
border_radii_tableton||||
border_radii_phoneon|100%|100%|100%|100%
border_radii_last_editedon|phone
button_text_shadow_stylenone
button_text_shadow_horizontal_length0em
button_text_shadow_vertical_length0em
button_text_shadow_blur_strength0em
button_text_shadow_colorrgba(0,0,0,0.4)
box_shadow_stylenone
box_shadow_colorrgba(0,0,0,0.3)
box_shadow_positionouter
box_shadow_style_buttonnone
box_shadow_color_buttonrgba(0,0,0,0.3)
box_shadow_position_buttonouter
text_shadow_stylenone
text_shadow_horizontal_length0em
text_shadow_vertical_length0em
text_shadow_blur_strength0em
text_shadow_colorrgba(0,0,0,0.4)
disabledoff
global_colors_info{}
Favicon

Execution time: 0.0055 seconds

ACF

ID58156
keyfield_623341caec7cf
labelName
nameblog_author_name
prefixacf
typetext
valueOmdena
parent58155
wrapperArray ( [width] => [class] => [id] => )
_nameblog_author_name
_valid1

Module Settings

custom_identifierACF Item
acf_namefield_623341caec7cf
is_author_acf_fieldoff
post_object_acf_namenone
author_field_typeauthor_post
linked_user_acf_namenone
type_taxonomy_acf_namenone
acf_tagp
show_labeloff
label_seperator:
visibilityon
empty_value_optionhide_module
use_iconoff
icon_color#7EBEC5
use_circleoff
circle_color#7EBEC5
use_circle_borderoff
circle_border_color#7EBEC5
use_icon_font_sizeoff
icon_image_placementleft
image_mobile_stackinginitial
return_formatarray
image_link_urloff
image_link_url_acf_namenone
checkbox_stylearray
checkbox_radio_returnlabel
checkbox_radio_value_typeoff
checkbox_radio_linkoff
link_buttonoff
email_subjectnone
email_body_afternone
add_css_classoff
add_css_loop_layoutoff
add_css_class_selectorbody
link_new_tabon
link_name_acfoff
link_name_acf_namenone
url_link_iconoff
image_sizefull
true_false_conditionoff
true_false_condition_css_selector.et_pb_button
true_false_text_trueTrue
true_false_text_falseFalse
is_audiooff
is_videooff
video_loopon
video_autoplayon
is_oembed_videooff
defer_videooff
defer_video_iconI||divi||400
video_icon_font_sizeoff
pretify_textoff
pretify_seperator,
number_decimal.
show_value_if_zerooff
text_imageoff
is_options_pageoff
is_repeater_loop_layoutoff
linked_post_stylecustom
link_post_seperator,
link_to_post_objecton
loop_layoutnone
columns4
columns_tablet2
columns_mobile1
repeater_dyn_btn_acfnone
text_before_positionsame_line
label_positionsame_line
vertical_alignmentmiddle
admin_labelName
_builder_version4.21.0
_module_presetdefault
title_css_text_alignleft
title_css_font_size14px
title_css_letter_spacing0px
title_css_line_height1em
acf_label_css_text_alignleft
acf_label_css_font_size14px
acf_label_css_letter_spacing0px
acf_label_css_line_height1em
label_css_fontRoboto|700|||||||
label_css_text_alignleft
label_css_letter_spacing0px
text_before_css_font_size14px
text_before_css_letter_spacing0px
text_before_css_line_height1em
seperator_font_size14px
seperator_letter_spacing0px
seperator_line_height1em
relational_field_item_font_size14px
relational_field_item_letter_spacing0px
relational_field_item_line_height1em
background_enable_coloron
use_background_color_gradientoff
background_color_gradient_repeatoff
background_color_gradient_typelinear
background_color_gradient_direction180deg
background_color_gradient_direction_radialcenter
background_color_gradient_stops#2b87da 0%|#29c4a9 100%
background_color_gradient_unit%
background_color_gradient_overlays_imageoff
background_color_gradient_start#2b87da
background_color_gradient_start_position0%
background_color_gradient_end#29c4a9
background_color_gradient_end_position100%
background_enable_imageon
parallaxoff
parallax_methodon
background_sizecover
background_image_widthauto
background_image_heightauto
background_positioncenter
background_horizontal_offset0
background_vertical_offset0
background_repeatno-repeat
background_blendnormal
background_enable_video_mp4on
background_enable_video_webmon
allow_player_pauseoff
background_video_pause_outside_viewporton
background_enable_pattern_styleoff
background_pattern_stylepolka-dots
background_pattern_colorrgba(0,0,0,0.2)
background_pattern_sizeinitial
background_pattern_widthauto
background_pattern_heightauto
background_pattern_repeat_origintop_left
background_pattern_horizontal_offset0
background_pattern_vertical_offset0
background_pattern_repeatrepeat
background_pattern_blend_modenormal
background_enable_mask_styleoff
background_mask_stylelayer-blob
background_mask_color#ffffff
background_mask_aspect_ratiolandscape
background_mask_sizestretch
background_mask_widthauto
background_mask_heightauto
background_mask_positioncenter
background_mask_horizontal_offset0
background_mask_vertical_offset0
background_mask_blend_modenormal
custom_buttonoff
button_text_size20
button_bg_use_color_gradientoff
button_bg_color_gradient_repeatoff
button_bg_color_gradient_typelinear
button_bg_color_gradient_direction180deg
button_bg_color_gradient_direction_radialcenter
button_bg_color_gradient_stops#2b87da 0%|#29c4a9 100%
button_bg_color_gradient_unit%
button_bg_color_gradient_overlays_imageoff
button_bg_color_gradient_start#2b87da
button_bg_color_gradient_start_position0%
button_bg_color_gradient_end#29c4a9
button_bg_color_gradient_end_position100%
button_bg_enable_imageon
button_bg_parallaxoff
button_bg_parallax_methodon
button_bg_sizecover
button_bg_image_widthauto
button_bg_image_heightauto
button_bg_positioncenter
button_bg_horizontal_offset0
button_bg_vertical_offset0
button_bg_repeatno-repeat
button_bg_blendnormal
button_bg_enable_video_mp4on
button_bg_enable_video_webmon
button_bg_allow_player_pauseoff
button_bg_video_pause_outside_viewporton
button_use_iconon
button_icon_placementright
button_on_hoveron
positioningnone
position_origin_atop_left
position_origin_ftop_left
position_origin_rtop_left
text_orientationleft
widthauto
max_widthnone
module_alignmentleft
min_heightauto
heightauto
max_heightnone
custom_margin_tablet||10px||false|false
custom_margin_phone||10px||false|false
custom_margin_last_editedon|tablet
custom_padding5px||||false|false
filter_hue_rotate0deg
filter_saturate100%
filter_brightness100%
filter_contrast100%
filter_invert0%
filter_sepia0%
filter_opacity100%
filter_blur0px
mix_blend_modenormal
animation_stylenone
animation_directioncenter
animation_duration1000ms
animation_delay0ms
animation_intensity_slide50%
animation_intensity_zoom50%
animation_intensity_flip50%
animation_intensity_fold50%
animation_intensity_roll50%
animation_starting_opacity0%
animation_speed_curveease-in-out
animation_repeatonce
hover_transition_duration300ms
hover_transition_delay0ms
hover_transition_speed_curveease
link_option_url_new_windowoff
sticky_positionnone
sticky_offset_top0px
sticky_offset_bottom0px
sticky_limit_topnone
sticky_limit_bottomnone
sticky_offset_surroundingon
sticky_transitionon
motion_trigger_startmiddle
hover_enabled0
title_css_text_align_tabletcenter
title_css_text_align_phonecenter
title_css_text_align_last_editedon|phone
acf_label_css_text_align_tabletcenter
acf_label_css_text_align_phonecenter
acf_label_css_text_align_last_editedon|phone
label_css_text_align_tabletcenter
label_css_text_align_phonecenter
label_css_text_align_last_editedon|desktop
text_orientation_tabletcenter
text_orientation_phonecenter
text_orientation_last_editedon|phone
module_alignment_tabletcenter
module_alignment_phonecenter
module_alignment_last_editedon|desktop
title_css_text_shadow_stylenone
title_css_text_shadow_horizontal_length0em
title_css_text_shadow_vertical_length0em
title_css_text_shadow_blur_strength0em
title_css_text_shadow_colorrgba(0,0,0,0.4)
acf_label_css_text_shadow_stylenone
acf_label_css_text_shadow_horizontal_length0em
acf_label_css_text_shadow_vertical_length0em
acf_label_css_text_shadow_blur_strength0em
acf_label_css_text_shadow_colorrgba(0,0,0,0.4)
label_css_text_shadow_stylenone
label_css_text_shadow_horizontal_length0em
label_css_text_shadow_vertical_length0em
label_css_text_shadow_blur_strength0em
label_css_text_shadow_colorrgba(0,0,0,0.4)
text_before_css_text_shadow_stylenone
text_before_css_text_shadow_horizontal_length0em
text_before_css_text_shadow_vertical_length0em
text_before_css_text_shadow_blur_strength0em
text_before_css_text_shadow_colorrgba(0,0,0,0.4)
seperator_text_shadow_stylenone
seperator_text_shadow_horizontal_length0em
seperator_text_shadow_vertical_length0em
seperator_text_shadow_blur_strength0em
seperator_text_shadow_colorrgba(0,0,0,0.4)
relational_field_item_text_shadow_stylenone
relational_field_item_text_shadow_horizontal_length0em
relational_field_item_text_shadow_vertical_length0em
relational_field_item_text_shadow_blur_strength0em
relational_field_item_text_shadow_colorrgba(0,0,0,0.4)
button_text_shadow_stylenone
button_text_shadow_horizontal_length0em
button_text_shadow_vertical_length0em
button_text_shadow_blur_strength0em
button_text_shadow_colorrgba(0,0,0,0.4)
box_shadow_stylenone
box_shadow_colorrgba(0,0,0,0.3)
box_shadow_positionouter
box_shadow_style_buttonnone
box_shadow_color_buttonrgba(0,0,0,0.3)
box_shadow_position_buttonouter
text_shadow_stylenone
text_shadow_horizontal_length0em
text_shadow_vertical_length0em
text_shadow_blur_strength0em
text_shadow_colorrgba(0,0,0,0.4)
disabledoff
global_colors_info{}

Omdena

Execution time: 0.0010 seconds

Execution time: 0.0004 seconds

Execution time: 0.0006 seconds

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1 Comment
  1. Vidya

    Kudos to you and Omdena for such detailed work . Well written article too.

    Reply
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